James says that the brand lists lend weight to the view that there is a deep difference of cultural identity between the two sides.
"The factors that explain these brand choices are complex and demographics such as age and income play a key role. But even accounting for these factors, by comparing brand choices of voters in the same demographic group, we see the same pattern emerge. For example, the brand choices of Leave and Remain voters in the 18-34 age bracket look remarkably similar to the list above with at least three brands on each side in the top 10," James wrote.
She sees the brands in the lists as embodying starkly different sets of characteristics.
Leave Brands more likely to be seen as:
traditional, straightforward, simple, down-to-earth, good value and friendly